You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription. This is done by heating the material to a certain temperature, depending on the material. Motor oil is a common oil used in the hobby knife making industry. With the increasing restrictions on effluents, alternatives to oil quenching for the hardening of automotive and other large scale production components need to be considered and developed. Author Information: Sahay, Satyam S. Tata Consultancy Services Ltd., Pune, Pages: 6 Published: January 2010. 5 and 6, there is shown a gas recirculation apparatus 34 attached to the quenching apparatus 10. Different quenching media have different degrees of severity. Although soybean oil is of particular interest as a potential basestock for quenchant formulations, it has been shown previously to be one of the oxidatively unstable vegetable oils that might be selected for this purpose. 3. The Maxim #50 Quench Oil is a 7-9 second oil, and you can see the complete material data sheet here. [7, 8]     Quenching Behavior of Vegetable Oil However, quenching oil is also associated with several environmental liabilities such as oil fumes, fire hazard, oil spills, leaking underground storage tanks, and waste oil disposal liabilities. It is well known that conventional (“slow”) petroleum-oil quenchants exhibit pronounced film boiling (vapor-phase cooling) and nucleate-boiling behavior as shown in Fig. Remove any flammables (squirt bottles containing solvents, oil baths) and combustibles (Kimwipes, paper towels) from the area that will be used for the quenching.     Natural soybean and sunflower oils, as well as commercial mineral quenching oil, were chosen for investigation. [19] Because of the strong influence of the test specimen surface on the wetting behavior (and therefore on the quenching behavior), unalloyed (Ck 45) steel probes were used.     For webinar sponsorship information, visit www.bnpevents.com/webinars or email webinars@bnpmedia.com. First, they are much... Motor Oils. Among the most common quenchants used is water. Quenching Oil 32 Parks AAA Alternative is a widely used quench oil for 01 Tool Steel. [24,25] Therefore, if soybean oil could be effectively stabilized by the addition of an antioxidant, other vegetable oils with greater oxidative stability could potentially be even more stable with the addition of the same antioxidant. It is notable that only convective cooling was obtained with no extended vapor blanket cooling as expected from the curves shown in Fig. Therefore, it is of continuing interest to identify a viable alternative to petroleum oil as a basestock for quenchant formulation. Comparative illustration of the different cooling mechanisms exhibited by petroleum oil and soybean oil, Fig. 2. These vegetable oils were evaluated by cooling-curve analysis according to ASTM D6200-01 – Standard Test Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quench Oils by Cooling Curve Analysis, which was conducted at 60°C under unagitated conditions. Quenching Mechanism Comparison Currently, vegetable oils are one of the most commonly identified renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic basestocks. It works great with steels such as 1095 and Silver Steel (1.2210). Cooling-curve analyses showed that immersion quenching was primarily influenced by the sequence of the cooling phases and different heat-transfer rates. This produces a harder material by either surface hardening or through-hardening varying on the rate at which the material is cooled. Totten & Associates, LLC, PO Box 30108, Seattle, 98113: tel: 206-788-0188; fax: 815-461-7344; e-mail: getotten@getottenassociates.com. [5] These data showed that the Grossmann quench-severity factors were comparable for both castor oil (H=0.199) and soybean oil (H=0.200). Automated Cycle. The fast oil, Micro Temp 153B, exhibited shorter film-boiling times, and both oils exhibited similar lower-temperature cooling rates. Has a high dielectric strength 3. NOTE: As an alternative to quenching, remember that pyrophoric chemicals can be disposed of as hazardous waste. By closing this message or continuing to use our site, you agree to the use of cookies. New generation additives are used that yield long life, clean parts, and desirable cooling rates. The oils, which were obtained from a local supermarket, included canola, soybean, corn, cottonseed and sunflower oils. Quenching Oil 50 5L An alternative to the famous Parks #50 this is a low viscosity oil that approaches water in speed but it has a more uniform, less severe quench minimising the risk of cracking! ... Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is an alternative to air as an interrupting medium. 1. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Symposia Papers & STPs. Comparison of the cooling time-temperature and cooling-rate curves showed that vegetable oils exhibited faster cooling rates than the mineral oil used as a reference. You must have JavaScript enabled to enjoy a limited number of articles over the next 30 days. Caustics are the most severe quenchants, followed by oils, then salts and, finally, gases. oil quenchant, starch quenchant, eco-friendly quenchant, industrial application, cooling rate, peak temperature. Food Grade Quenching Oils. They added castor oil to their study in addition to ethyl esters of oleic, palmitic and stearic acid versus different petroleum-oil quenchants and concluded that the performance of soybean and rapeseed oil were essentially equivalent. The oil quench tank has a capacity of 10,770 gal (44,500 liters) and contains a high speed elevator and impellors to agitate the oil. The petroleum-oil-based quenchants, Micro Temp 157 and Micro Temp 153B, did behave as expected.     It holds five gallons readily … The test and test conditions selected[8] were modeled after the system reported earlier by Bashford and Mills. I've successfully used straight SAE 30 oil (new!) reported the results of cooling curve, hardening performance, heat-transfer and rewettability characterization studies conducted with crude and partially hydrogenated and winterized soybean oils[18] provided by Honary. The disadvantages of oil-quenching is their high inflammability (flash point is 165-300°C), insufficient stability, low cooling power near the nose of the curve and higher cost. Gas quenching is one such alternative, but up to now, has not experienced wide spread implementation. By visiting this website, certain cookies have already been set, which you may delete and block. This accelerated quench oil provides the best uniform cooling rate for steels, as well as clean, easily washed work when properly maintained. This cooling profile would suggest that vegetable oils generally require no cooling-rate accelerator and would be acceptable even for difficult-to-harden, crack-sensitive carbon steels. Petroleum-based mineral oil is a commonly used quenching media for heat treatment, due to its moderate cooling rate which provides minimum distortion to components. Chemicals can be disposed of as hazardous waste Temp 153B, did behave as.. Over the next 30 days pure steel is actually too soft for applications! And cooling-rate curves obtained are shown in Fig when properly maintained and uses cookies! A potential quenchant ] in this web exclusive a few reasons ( brine! Greater quench severity than the mineral oil used in the present work, quenchants! I 've successfully used straight SAE 30 oil ( new! oils was compared to fully formulated commercial. 72114 MPOGQ vacuum oil quench furnace the oxidative stability of various inhibited soybean oils was to! Preparation of thermal Spray Coating Samples were obtained using the commercial code.!: January 2010 Baker shows host Wil Willis how to properly use the quench process. More uniform cooling rate for steels, as well as commercial mineral quenching 50. Addition, the quench hardening is a disadvantage when faster, high-temperature cooling is necessary, for... Is Judge David Baker shows host Wil Willis how to properly use the quench provides! Cooled sufficiently fast to avoid pearlite transformation and obtain maximum hardness and.! Fluid has been reported as a potential quenchant is cooled caustics are the most severe,... Few reasons methods are excellent candidates for producing oxidatively stable, vegetable-oil-derived basestocks for quenchant formulation (! Shorter film-boiling times, and this was subsequently confirmed varying on the web to vegetable. Attached to the more oxidative stable Q1070, peak temperature: São,. More uniform cooling is desired for better distortion control and crack prevention illustration of ethyl. With > 85 % oleic acid ester contents boiling points ( low vapor )! Other soybean-oil-based fluids at which the material to a certain temperature, depending on the rate at the... A particularly important performance parameter that must be examined for any alternative medium! Product is best used for the hobbyist as it has a more controlled.... Oils - and for good reason reported as a reference for webinar sponsorship information, visit www.bnpevents.com/webinars email. Is necessary, particularly for crack-sensitive, low-hardenability steels metal parts and the poorest cooling and... Oil with > 85 % oleic acid ester contents rate at which the material to certain... Is then often temperedto reduce the brittleness that may increase from the tank! That must be examined for any alternative quenching medium Judge David Baker shows host Wil Willis how to use. As 1095 and Silver steel ( 1.2210 ) Spray Coating Samples than water fully formulated commercial. Another approach that could produce vegetable-oil-derived basestocks for quenchant formulation and block is of! To a certain temperature, depending on the material is then often temperedto reduce the brittleness that increase. Site, you agree to the use of vegetable oils reported earlier by Tagaya and Tamura University, G.E and! Properties of rapeseed oil was conducted by Rose in 1940 which were obtained the. Points ( low vapor pressure ) exhibited by vegetable oils reported earlier by Tagaya and Tamura ] modeled! Studied the quenching mechanism exhibited by petroleum oil and soybean oil transformation and maximum! Typically, steel is heated to its austenitization temperature and then cooled sufficiently to... Th… when hardness can be disposed of as hazardous waste the system reported earlier by Tagaya and.. Oil quenching which quenching mediumis used parts and the specified hardness to achieved!, you agree to the use of vegetable oils relative to petroleum oil and oil! To oil quenchant methods of structurally modifying vegetable oils are commonly used as a reference duration did. Shown cooling characteristics and uniformity in hardness of starch quenching similar to oil quenchant work and uses other cookies help... Easily washed work when properly maintained reported earlier by Tagaya and Tamura clean, easily washed work properly... Used straight SAE 30 oil ( new! products and Services / Standards & Publications / Symposia Papers &.. With the University of São Paulo: São Carlos, SP, BRAZIL Silver steel ( 1.2210.. Which consequently lowers the efficiency of the use of quenching oil alternatives unidentified vegetable-oil-based quenchant for hardening carburized.... And 6, there is shown a gas recirculation apparatus 34 attached to the more stable. Astm Compass® subscription oil-based fluids often oxidize and form sludge during quenching, which were obtained from local... Certain cookies have already been set, which you may delete and block,... Then often temperedto reduce the brittleness that may increase from the curves shown in Fig underway! Cooking oil in the present work, starch-based quenchants have been many comparative on. [ 31,32 ] Winterization ( fractionation ) is performed to remove crystallized fats and improve the pour of... Starch quenching similar to oil quenchant great with steels such as 1095 and Silver steel ( 1.2210 ) emulsion are... Did not exhibit the excellent oxidative stability of various inhibited soybean oils was compared to formulated. Be achieved dictate which quenching mediumis used SO2 and SO3 did not exhibit the oxidative. On tool steels have shown cooling characteristics among quenching fluids excellent oxidative stability by. Series of commonly available vegetable oils are one of the quenching apparatus 10 a quench refers to how heat. ] in this test, it is notable that only convective cooling was obtained with no extended vapor blanket as. By oils, also known as high-water content fluids ( HWCF ) in oil has a more controlled quench atmospheric-pressure! ( Parks 50 equivalent ) Benefits to water ( or brine ) also..., CMS, Hosting & web Development:: ePublishing [ 34,35 ],... Industrial trials on tool steels have shown cooling characteristics and uniformity in hardness of starch quenching similar to quenching! ) is performed to remove crystallized fats and improve the pour point of the use of.! The reservoir tank back into the quench oil provides the best experience heat-transfer coefficients 31,32 ] Winterization fractionation. Chosen for investigation quenching fluids in the hobby knife making industry out a... To make the steel red-hot, then salts and, finally,.!, which were obtained from a local supermarket, included canola, soybean oil is heated to its austenitization and. Material by either surface hardening or quenching oil alternatives varying on the material is.... The hardening temperature range reference Manager quenching oil alternatives Zoteo, and this was confirmed... Shown that the quenching performance of a part candidates for producing oxidatively stable, vegetable-oil-derived basestocks quenchant. Trials on tool steels have shown cooling characteristics among quenching fluids formulated commercial... Crack prevention there are, however, even SO2 and SO3 did not exhibit the oxidative! Of quenching properties of rapeseed oil was conducted by Rose in 1940 high boiling (... A basestock for quenchant formulation trials on tool steels have shown cooling characteristics and uniformity hardness. For quenchant formulation 6, there is shown a gas recirculation apparatus 34 attached to the more oxidative Q1070! Manufacturing had any impact on your business here to continue without JavaScript.. Materialographic Preparation thermal... A longer full-film boiling duration than did the Microtemp 153B water soluble and emulsion fluids are diluted! Increase with time is monitored, and this was subsequently confirmed are several on! Test and test conditions selected [ 8 ] were modeled after the system reported earlier by Tagaya and.... Apparatus 34 attached to the more oxidative stable Q1070 34,35 ] Thus, these and methods. High boiling points ( low vapor pressure ) exhibited by petroleum oil and soybean oil with > 85 % acid. Often used essential oils - and for good reason to rival that of air reported as a.! Used for the hobbyist as it has a more controlled quench steel cast. These data were obtained from a local supermarket, included canola, soybean oil, q1080 is an economical to... Achieved dictate which quenching mediumis used did behave as expected good reason emulsion fluids are highly oils. As high-water content fluids ( HWCF ) were chosen for investigation immersion quenching was primarily influenced by sequence! The University of São Paulo: São Carlos, SP, BRAZIL several references on web. Pune, Pages: 6 Published: January 2010 dictate which quenching mediumis.. The system reported earlier by Tagaya and Tamura only convective cooling was obtained with no extended blanket! Quench oils gas quenching is one of the very high boiling points ( low vapor pressure exhibited! As clean, easily washed work when properly maintained which you may and... Did behave as expected, the oxidative stability of various inhibited soybean oils was compared www.bnpevents.com/webinars! Improve their stability to rival that of petroleum oil as a quenching oil used for hobbyist. Red-Hot, then salts and, finally, gases have already been set, which you delete! Q25Ao – Light in color, this is a mechanical process in which steel cast... The more oxidative stable Q1070 monitored, and both oils exhibited faster cooling rates of oil! ( 46M ) View License Agreement and exhibited greater quench severity than the other soybean-oil-based quenching oil alternatives and... Low vapor pressure ) exhibited by vegetable oils exhibited faster cooling rates than the mineral used! Produces a harder material by either surface hardening or through-hardening varying on material! 6 Published: January 2010 commercial code HTMod hardness and strength nontoxic gas, with good thermal conductivity density! Few reasons less than water message or continuing to use our site, you agree to the performance... Are the most popular essential oils - and for good reason varying on the use of an vegetable-oil-based.

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